Excerpt: The annual State, Foreign Operations and Related Agencies appropriations bill is the primary legislative vehicle through which Congress reviews the U.S. international affairs budget and influences executive branch foreign policy making in general, as these activities have not been considered regularly by Congress through the authorization process since 2003. Funding for Foreign Operations and State Department/Broadcasting programs has been steadily rising since FY2002, after a period of decline in the 1980s and 1990s. Amounts approved for FY2004 in regular and supplemental bills reached an unprecedented level compared with the previous 40 years, largely due to Iraq reconstruction funding. Ongoing assistance to Iraq and Afghanistan, as well as large new global health programs, has kept the international affairs budget at historically high levels in recent years. The Obama Administration’s FY2010 budget proposal indicated that this trend would continue.This report analyzes the FY2010 request, recent-year funding trends, and congressional action for FY2010, which includes the July 9 House approval of H.R. 3081, the State-Foreign Operations Appropriations bill for FY2010, July 9 Senate Appropriations Committee passage of its bill (S.1434), and passage of H.R. 3288, the Consolidated Appropriations Act, 2010, signed into law Dec. 16, 2009.
Below you will find a compilation of reports related to international peacekeeping, including the latest and most relevant research and information from PEP Partners and Academics, as well as the UN, U.S. Government and Foreign Governments.
Note: The PEP report library is a “comprehensive compilation in progress.” We encourage PEP Partners to submit relevant reports for inclusion on the site.
The Latest Reports
State, Foreign Operations, and Related Programs: FY2010 Budget and AppropriationsPublished February 2, 2010
Report of the Secretary-General on the African Union-United Nations Hybrid Operation in Darfur (UNAMID)Published January 29, 2010
Abstract: The present report is on the progress made towards implementing the mandate of the African Union-United Nations Hybrid Operation in Darfur (UNAMID) across Darfur, as well as on the political process, on the security and humanitarian situation and on compliance by all parties with their international obligations. It covers the period from 1 November 2009 to 31 January 2010. The present report includes an assessment of the mission’s progress made against the benchmarks contained in the report to the Council of 16 November 2009. Consequently, in the light of a review of the deployment status of UNAMID, the present report is organized according to the issues listed under the four benchmark areas: the political process, the security situation, the rule of law, governance and human rights, and the humanitarian situation.
Disaster Relief Funding and Emergency Supplemental AppropriationsPublished January 26, 2010
Excerpt: When a state is overwhelmed by an emergency or disaster, the governor may request assistance from the federal government. Federal assistance is contingent on whether the President issues an emergency or major disaster declaration. Once the declaration has been issued the FederalEmergency Management Agency (FEMA) provides disaster relief through the use of the Disaster Relief Fund (DRF), which is the source of funding for the Robert T. Stafford Emergency Relief and Disaster Assistance Act response and recovery programs. Congress appropriates money to the DRF to ensure that funding for disaster relief is available to help individuals and communities stricken by emergencies and major disasters (in addition, Congress appropriates disaster funds to other accounts administered by other federal agencies pursuant to federal statutes that authorize specific types of disaster relief).This report describes the various components of the DRF, including (1) what authorities have shaped it over the years; (2) how FEMA determines the amount of the appropriation requested to Congress (pertaining to the DRF); and (3) how emergency supplemental appropriations are requested. In addition to the DRF, information is provided on funds appropriated in supplemental appropriations legislation to agencies other than the Department of Homeland Security (DHS). Aspects of debate concerning how disaster relief is budgeted are also highlighted and examined, and alternative budgetary options are summarized.
Negotiating Sudan’s Post-Referendum ArrangementsPublished January 22, 2010
This Peace Brief written by Jon Temin, is based on meetings in Khartoum, Juba, Washington and elsewhere between August 2009 and January 2010. In speaking of Southern Sudan’s referendum on whether to remain part of Sudan or secede, the brief states that it is vital that the international community encourage and support negotiations on postreferendum arrangements, that a single mediator supported by a contact group or group of friends that can insert targeted pressures and incentives into the process with a clear and strong mandate should lead negotiations on postreferendum arrangements, that states and non-state actors that wish to play a central role in negotiations on post-referendum arrangements should demonstrate a long term commitment to Sudan and to overseeing implementation of any agreement, and that negotiations on post-referendum arrangements and the ongoing negotiations on Darfur should be kept separate.
Report of the Secretary-General on the SudanPublished January 19, 2010
The present report is submitted pursuant to paragraph 11 of Security Council resolution 1590 (2005), in which the Council requested that it be kept regularly informed of progress in the implementation of the Comprehensive Peace Agreement in the Sudan. The report provides an assessment of the overall situation in the country since my previous report, dated 21 October 2009, as well as an update on the activities of the United Nations Mission in the Sudan (UNMIS) up to 31 December 2009.
Twenty-third progress report of the Secretary-General on the United Nations Operation in Côte d’IvoirePublished January 7, 2010
Abstract: The Security Council, by its resolution 1880 (2009), extended the mandate of the United Nations Operation in Côte d’Ivoire (UNOCI) and the French Licorne force until 31 January 2010, and requested a report on the situation in Côte d’Ivoire and on the progress towards achieving the key benchmarks proposed in the report of 8 January 2009. The present report covers major developments since the report of 29 September 2009 until the end of December 2009. The benchmarks and indicators of progress are set out in annex I to the present report.
From New York to the Field: A Dialogue on UN Peace OperationsPublished January 1, 2010
On June 19, 2009, the International Peace Institute (IPI) convened a daylong conference entitled “Special Representatives of the Secretary-General and UN Member States: Towards an Interactive Dialogue,” held as part of an ongoing IPI dialogue on peace operations designed to make partnerships between UN member states, the UN Secretariat, and Special Representatives of the Secretary-General more productive. This meeting note reflects the conversations held that day.
Operationalizing the African Standby ForcePublished January 1, 2010
On May 18-19, 2009, the International Peace Institute (IPI), in cooperation with the African Union and the United Nations, convened a high-level African civilian and military leaders’ retreat in Kigali, Rwanda entitled “African Peace and Security Architecture: Operationalizing the African Standby Force—Strategic Considerations.” This meeting note highlights the key issues raised at the retreat and synthesizes the recommendations that emerged from the discussions.
Security Sector Reform: A Case Study Approach to Transition and Capacity BuildingPublished January 1, 2010
This paper explores the definition of SSR as it has emerged in the international community, including the United States, its bilateral partners, and various intergovernmental organizations. It examines the makeup of the security sector, identifies emergent principles for implementing SSR in the community of practice, and specifies the outcomes that SSR is designed to produce. The supporting case studies of Haiti, Liberia, and Kosovo assess the impact of SSR programs on host nation security sectors. The authors conclude that those conducting SSR programs must understand and continually revisit the policy goals of SSR programs in order to develop concepts that support a transitional process that moves forward over time.
Defense Sector Reform: A Note On Current PracticePublished December 12, 2009
In countries recovering from conflict, defence institutions may be particularly resistant to change, often because change would entail loss of political control or decreased access to wealth, including reduced ability to exploit natural resources. Although bilateral defence assistance has been a staple of international aid for decades, assistance to equip and train partner defence forces cannot be equated with defence sector reform. Such assistance may not address corruption, human rights abuses, or the likelihood of internal conflict in recipient countries, whereas the core principles of security sector (system) reform emphasize good governance, transparency, efficiency, fairness and equity in recruiting and promotion, accountable and sustainable financing, respect for human rights, and local ownership based on democratic norms. Failure to reform the defence sector in broad terms-including its governance and oversight-will likely impair a country's ability to build transparent, accountable, and efficient public institutions in general, and may also interfere with the larger economic recovery or development process. This practice note highlights good and bad practice and lessons learned regarding the design and implementation of defence sector reform programming.