The report reviews the situation in the Democratic Republic of the Congo and the strategic review requested in paragraph 2 of the resolution 1906 (2009). The report covers developments since the report of 4 December 2009 and contains the findings and recommendations of an interdepartmental technical assessment mission that visited the Democratic Republic of the Congo to conduct the tasks set out in paragraph 2 of resolution 1906 (2009).
Below you will find a compilation of reports related to international peacekeeping, including the latest and most relevant research and information from PEP Partners and Academics, as well as the UN, U.S. Government and Foreign Governments.
Note: The PEP report library is a “comprehensive compilation in progress.” We encourage PEP Partners to submit relevant reports for inclusion on the site.
The Latest Reports
Report of the UN Secretary-General on MONUCPublished March 30, 2010
Haiti Earthquake: Crisis and ResponsePublished March 8, 2010
Excerpt: The largest earthquake ever recorded in Haiti devastated parts of the country, including the capital, on January 12, 2010. The quake, centered about 15 miles southwest of Port-au-Prince, had a magnitude of 7.0. A series of strong aftershocks have followed. Experts estimate the earthquake caused $8 to $14 billion in damage. Approximately 3 million people, roughly onethird of the overall population, have been affected by the earthquake with more than 1.2 million displaced. The government of Haiti is reporting an estimated 230,000 deaths and 300,000 injured. In the immediate aftermath of the earthquake, President Rene Préval described conditions in his country as “unimaginable,” and appealed for international assistance. As the humanitarian relief operation continues, the government is struggling to restore the institutions needed for it to function, ensure political stability, and address long-term reconstruction and development planning. Prior to the earthquake, the international community was providing extensive development and humanitarian assistance to Haiti. With that assistance, the Haitian government had made significant progress in recent years in many areas of its development strategy. The destruction of Haiti’s nascent infrastructure and other extensive damage caused by the earthquake will set back Haiti’s development significantly. A post-disaster needs assessment is being conducted, and Haiti’s long-term development plans are now being revised. The focus of this report is on the immediate crisis in Haiti as a result of the earthquake, the U.S. and international response to date, and long-term implications of the earthquake.
Lessons Learned from Peace Operations in AfricaPublished March 1, 2010
This brief by Paul D. Williams reviews the major strategic and operational lessons learned from the 40 peace operations that were deployed to Africa since 2000 with the aim of making these and future operations more effective instruments of conflict resolution. The author argues that in order to be successful, peace operations must be part of an effective political strategy and peace process, not a substitute for them, policymakers need to move beyond a preoccupation with the number of personnel deployed for each mission and focus on what capabilities are needed to generate the desired political effects, and that maintaining legitimacy is a crucial part of achieving success.
Last Line of Defense: How Peacekeepers Can Better Protect CiviliansPublished February 24, 2010
In this report, Erin Weir of Refugees International outlines the concrete steps that the UN Security Council, troop contributing countries, and UN Member States — including the U.S. — can take to increase protection for hundreds of thousands of civilians coping with violent conflict. The report ultimately examines what peacekeepers need in order to fulfill protection mandates and the challenges in meeting these needs.
Sudan: The Crisis in Darfur and Status of the North-South Peace AgreementPublished February 4, 2010
Excerpt: Sudan, geographically the largest country in Africa, has been ravaged by civil war intermittently for four decades. More than 2 million people have died in Southern Sudan over the past two decades due to war-related causes and famine, and millions have been displaced from their homes. There were many failed attempts to end the civil war in Southern Sudan. In July 2002, the Sudan government and the Sudan People’s Liberation Movement (SPLM) signed a peace framework agreement in Kenya. On May 26, 2004, the government of Sudan and the SPLM signed three protocols on Power Sharing, on the Nuba Mountains and Southern Blue Nile, and on the long disputed Abyei area. The signing of these protocols resolved all outstanding issues between the parties. On June 5, 2004, the parties signed “the Nairobi Declaration on the Final Phase of Peace in the Sudan.” On January 9, 2005, the government of Sudan and the SPLM signed the final peace agreement at a ceremony held in Nairobi, Kenya.
State, Foreign Operations, and Related Programs: FY2010 Budget and AppropriationsPublished February 2, 2010
Excerpt: The annual State, Foreign Operations and Related Agencies appropriations bill is the primary legislative vehicle through which Congress reviews the U.S. international affairs budget and influences executive branch foreign policy making in general, as these activities have not been considered regularly by Congress through the authorization process since 2003. Funding for Foreign Operations and State Department/Broadcasting programs has been steadily rising since FY2002, after a period of decline in the 1980s and 1990s. Amounts approved for FY2004 in regular and supplemental bills reached an unprecedented level compared with the previous 40 years, largely due to Iraq reconstruction funding. Ongoing assistance to Iraq and Afghanistan, as well as large new global health programs, has kept the international affairs budget at historically high levels in recent years. The Obama Administration’s FY2010 budget proposal indicated that this trend would continue.This report analyzes the FY2010 request, recent-year funding trends, and congressional action for FY2010, which includes the July 9 House approval of H.R. 3081, the State-Foreign Operations Appropriations bill for FY2010, July 9 Senate Appropriations Committee passage of its bill (S.1434), and passage of H.R. 3288, the Consolidated Appropriations Act, 2010, signed into law Dec. 16, 2009.
Report of the Secretary-General on the African Union-United Nations Hybrid Operation in Darfur (UNAMID)Published January 29, 2010
Abstract: The present report is on the progress made towards implementing the mandate of the African Union-United Nations Hybrid Operation in Darfur (UNAMID) across Darfur, as well as on the political process, on the security and humanitarian situation and on compliance by all parties with their international obligations. It covers the period from 1 November 2009 to 31 January 2010. The present report includes an assessment of the mission’s progress made against the benchmarks contained in the report to the Council of 16 November 2009. Consequently, in the light of a review of the deployment status of UNAMID, the present report is organized according to the issues listed under the four benchmark areas: the political process, the security situation, the rule of law, governance and human rights, and the humanitarian situation.
Disaster Relief Funding and Emergency Supplemental AppropriationsPublished January 26, 2010
Excerpt: When a state is overwhelmed by an emergency or disaster, the governor may request assistance from the federal government. Federal assistance is contingent on whether the President issues an emergency or major disaster declaration. Once the declaration has been issued the FederalEmergency Management Agency (FEMA) provides disaster relief through the use of the Disaster Relief Fund (DRF), which is the source of funding for the Robert T. Stafford Emergency Relief and Disaster Assistance Act response and recovery programs. Congress appropriates money to the DRF to ensure that funding for disaster relief is available to help individuals and communities stricken by emergencies and major disasters (in addition, Congress appropriates disaster funds to other accounts administered by other federal agencies pursuant to federal statutes that authorize specific types of disaster relief).This report describes the various components of the DRF, including (1) what authorities have shaped it over the years; (2) how FEMA determines the amount of the appropriation requested to Congress (pertaining to the DRF); and (3) how emergency supplemental appropriations are requested. In addition to the DRF, information is provided on funds appropriated in supplemental appropriations legislation to agencies other than the Department of Homeland Security (DHS). Aspects of debate concerning how disaster relief is budgeted are also highlighted and examined, and alternative budgetary options are summarized.